Thursday, 9 August 2012

Magento Questions and Answers

Q 1. What is Magento?

Ans. Magento is a feature-rich eCommerce platform built on open-source technology that provides online merchants with unprecedented flexibility and control over the look, content and functionality of their eCommerce store. Magento's intuitive administration interface features powerful marketing, search engine optimization and catalog-management tools to give merchants the power to create sites that are tailored to their unique business needs. Designed to be completely scalable and backed by Varien's support network, Magento offers companies the ultimate eCommerce solution.
Q 2. What is the difference between Mage::getSingletone() andMage::getModel() in Magento

Ans. Mage::getSingletone() always finds for an existing object if not then create that a newobject but Mage::getModel() always creates a new object.
Q 3. Why Magento use EAV database model ?

Ans. In EAV database model, data are stored in different smaller tables rather than storing in a single table.product name is stored in catalog_product_entity_varchar tableproduct id is stored in catalog_product_entity_int tableproduct price is stored in catalog_product_entity_decimal tableMagento Use EAV database model for easy upgrade and development as this model gives more flexibility to play with data and attributes.
Q 4. How to upgrade to the latest version using Magento Connect?

Ans. Upgrading Magento to the latest version is a fairly simple task. Copy and Paste this key magento-core/Mage_All_Latest VIA Magento Connect where it states Paste extension key to install:. This will upgrade Magento to the newest version.
Q 5. Explain about the Modules of Magento?

Ans. Magento supports installation of modules through a web-based interface accessible through the administration area of a Magento installation. Modules are hosted on the Magento eCommerce website as a PEAR server. Any community member can upload a module through the website and is made available once confirmed by a member of the Magento team. Modules are installed by entering a module key, available on the module page, into the web based interface.

There are three categories of modules hosted on Magento Connect:

Core Modules
Community Modules
Commercial Modules

Core and Community modules can be installed via the administration area. Commercial module pages provide price information and a link to an external website.
Q 6. What technology used by Magento?

Ans. Magento uses PHP as a web server scripting language and the MySQL Database. The data model is based on the Entity-attribute-value model that stores data objects in tree structures, thus allowing a change to a data structure without changing the database definition.
Q 7. What is MVC structure in Magento?

Ans. The Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture traces its
origins back to the Smalltalk Programming language and Xerox
Parc. Since then, there have been many systems that describe
their architecture as MVC. Each system is slightly
different, but all have the goal of separating data access,
business logic, and user-interface code from one another.
Q 8. What is benefit of namespace (package) in magento?

Ans. We can have more than one module with same name but they should be placed in different namespaces. All magento core modules are contained in mage namespace.

and all custom modules are placed in

Q 9. How to include CMS block in template file(.phtml)?

Ans. Access block’s content from .phtml template file by :

echo $this->getLayout()->createBlock(‘cms/block’)->setBlockId(‘static_block_id’)->toHTML();
Q 10. How to add an external javascript/css file to Magento?

skin_jsjs/ yourfile.js
skin_csscss/yourstyle. css
Q 11. What are handles in magento (layout)?

Ans. Handles are basically used for controlling the structure of the page like which block will be displayed and where. First level child elements of the node are called layout handles. Every page request can have several unique Handles. The handle is called for every page. handle for products belongs to virtual product type, PRODUCT_TYPE_simple is called for product details page of simple product type and PRODUCT_TYPE_virtual is called for the virtual product detail page and customer_logged_in handle is called only if customer is logged in. The muster_index_index handle is created by combining the frontName (muster), Action Controller (index), and Action Controller Action Method (index) into a single string and this handle will be called only when /zag/index/index url is accessed.
Q 12. What is in magento?

Ans. The routers tag allow us to decide frontname for each module. The tag is defined in config.xml file of module. For Namespace_MyModule frontname is moduleurl so the url will be like :


Q 13. Which factors affect performance of magento?

1. EAV structure of magento database, even for retrieving single entity the query becomes very complex .
2. Magento’s template system involves a lot of recursive rendering
3. Huge XML trees built up for layout configuration, application configuration settings

Q 14. How to improve magento performance?


Enabled magento caching
MySQL Query caching
Enable Gzip Compression
Disable any unused modules
Disable the Magento log
Optimise your images
Combine external CSS/JS into one file
Enable Apache KeepAlives: Make sure your Apache configuration has KeepAlives enabled.
Q 15. How to get the Total Price of items currently in the Cart?

helper(‘checkout’)->formatPrice(Mage::getSingleton(‘checkout/cart’)->getQuote()->getGrandTotal()); ?>
Q 16. How to set different themes for logged in users?

Q 17. How to create magento custom module?

Ans. Steps to create custom magento module:
Namespace : Zag
Module Name : Mymodule
1. Create directory Mymodule in app/code/local/Zag
2. Create Block, controllers, etc, Module directories. Create controller, block and module file as required.
3. Create module configuration file (app/code/local/Zag/Mymodule/etc/config.xml).
4. Create xml file (app/etc/modules/Zag_ Mymodule.xml)to enable/disable module and tell magento system from which code pool that module will be taken.
Q 18. How to set different themes for each store?

Ans. Go to : System>Designs
Then, add new design change or edit existing. You can select Store and Custom Design.
Q 19. How to make product’s custom attribute searchable in advance search?

Ans. Go to : Catalog > Attributes > Manage Attributes
Edit the attribute and select “Yes” for Use in Advanced Search.
Q 20. How to fetch 5 bestsellers products pro-grammatically?

->setPage(1, 5)

Q 21.What is difference between Module and Extension of Magento?

Module are the custom code developed  by extending the features and functionality of Magento as per the Magento file structure and standard.
Extensions are simply packed modules which is packed with the help of System > Magento Connect > Package Extensions. Now this extension(a packed module) can be published through the Magento Connect.

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